Carl Rogers rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in response to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviourism. His approach emphasizes the individuals' inherent drive towards self-actualization, the process of realizing and expressing one's own capabilities and creativity.
The term 'actualizing tendency' was coined by Rogers, and was a concept that eventually led Abraham Maslow to consider and study self-actualization as one of the needs of humans. Rogers and Maslow introduced this positive, humanistic psychology in response to what they viewed as the overly pessimistic view of psychoanalysis.
Empathy is one of the most important aspects of humanistic therapy. This idea focuses on the therapist’s ability to see the world through the eyes of the client. Without this, therapists may apply an external frame of reference where the therapist is no longer understanding the actions and thoughts of the client as the client would, but strictly as a therapist which defeats the purpose of humanistic therapy. Acceptance and positive regard is one of the key elements of humanistic psychology.
Positive regard refers to the care that the therapist needs to have for the client. This ensures that the therapist does not become the authority figure, allowing for more authenticity, as well as a kinder relationship between the two. A therapist practicing humanistic therapy needs to show a willingness to listen and ensure the comfort of the patient where genuine feelings may be shared but are not forced upon someone.